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Understanding tags

General Theory

You can use "tags" in MPF to group multiple devices together which you can later control via the tag name instead of the individual device names.

For example, you could tag all your GI LEDs with "gi", and then if you want to turn off all the GI LEDs, you can just set the color of the "gi" tag instead of having to list out all the individual LEDs.

Tags also affect the events that are posted by devices. This lets you easily set up logic which fires when any device with a certain tag is activated, for example.

Tags and Events

For example, look at this config where we add a couple of tags to the start button switch:

    number: 1
    tags: start, skyfall

In this case, whenever the start switch is activated, there will be two events fired. You will see something like this in the log:

2018-09-26 20:32:14,215 : INFO : EventManager : Event: ======'sw_start'====== Args={}
2018-09-26 20:32:14,215 : INFO : EventManager : Event: ======'sw_start_active'====== Args={}
2018-09-26 20:32:14,215 : INFO : EventManager : Event: ======'sw_skyfall'====== Args={}
2018-09-26 20:32:14,215 : INFO : EventManager : Event: ======'sw_skyfall_active'====== Args={}

Both events are prefixed with sw_ as a default. You can override this with the mpf: section.


Please note that those events will only show up if either a handler for them exists (i.e. an event_player) or when you set debug: True to your switch. This is purely a performance optimization and also will save you a lot of log lines.

Power of Tags

While tags and events can be used interchangeably at times, the real power lies in multiple tagging. When you use the same tags on multiple devices it can save you coding time and reduce the size of your configurations.

Example 1 - Pop Bumpers

For this example, a game with 3 popbumpers will all behave in the same way. To start we will give 100 points for every hit of a pop bumper.

Firstly we define the popbumper switches.

    number: 55
    tags: mygame_popbumper
    number: 56
    tags: mygame_popbumper
    number: 57
    tags: mygame_popbumper

Now we want to score 100 points every time a pop bumper is hit. We have two ways of accomplishing this same goal. One with pure events and one with tags.

Example with events:

##! mode: my_mode
    score: 100
    score: 100
    score: 100

Now with tags:

##! mode: my_mode
    score: 100

As you can see, if you have a repeating event you can save yourself some time and coding by using tags. Any switch tagged as mygame_popbumper will echo a sw_mygame_popbumper event.

Example 2 - Playfield is active

Another example is tagging specific switches on a playfield to validate if a ball is in play or not. These would be any switches a ball could hit within regular game play which are not part of a device. Some devices such as drop targets will trigger their own switch during ball search and we do not want them to end ball search doing that. Therefore, they got built-in support for marking the playfield active and your should not tag those switches (MPF will also complain if you do).

For our purposes we will check if a ball hits the roll over in the orbit after it was plunged. At that point it is obviously on the playfield and ball search should not start.

All we need to do is add a tag:

    number: 55
    tags: playfield_active
    number: 56
    tags: playfield_active

Reserved Tags in MPF

MPF contains some reserved tags that are used for certain devices. An example of this is a ball trough.

#! switches:
#!   s_test1:
#!     number: 1
#!   mygame_switch_trough_1:
#!     number: 2
#!   mygame_switch_trough_2:
#!     number: 3
#!   mygame_switch_trough_3:
#!     number: 4
#! coils:
#!   mygame_coil_trough_eject:
#!     number: 1
#!   mygame_balldevice_shooter_lane:
#!     ball_switches: s_test1
#!     mechanical_eject: true
    ball_switches: mygame_switch_trough_1, mygame_switch_trough_2, mygame_switch_trough_3
    eject_coil: mygame_coil_trough_eject
    eject_targets: mygame_balldevice_shooter_lane
    tags: trough, home

The two tags on the ball trough device assist MPF in determining various characteristics of this device. Namely that it is considered a 'home' device where balls can come to rest when a game is not in play. And the 'trough' tag to help MPF denote that this is a ball trough and not some other style of captive device like a saucer.

Using * for a catch all

Added in MPF 0.56.1

Any time you're specifying tags in MPF, you can use the * character as the tag name to return all the devices of that type. In other words, the * is not a valid tag name, but when you're doing something based on tags, you can use it to get a list of all devices.

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