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MPF Philosophy: "config files" versus "programming"

When we talk about MPF, we really play up the fact that when you use MPF, you can do 90%+ of your of your "programming" with MPF's YAML configuration files.

We've received criticism of that over the past few years, typically falling into one of the following categories:

  • Since everything in MPF is in config files, that's something new you have to learn. If you don't know MPF, you can't just look at a config file and know what's happening.
  • Since config files insulate the game programmer from the code, when something doesn't work, you don't know if it's your config or a bug in MPF.
  • Using config files limits game programmers in that they have to do everything the "MPF way."
  • Coding is fun! MPF deprives people of that.

We understand the motivation behind all these thoughts, so we'd like to provide our perspective on these issues.

You can still code in MPF

MPF does not prevent you from coding. We provide two levels of abstraction to programmers: hardware abstraction and device abstract. If you use a flipper device in code it will expose methods to disable or enable a flipper and work on any hardware which is supported in MPF. Plus the device will manage all the game integration (e.g. disable flipper after the game).

Nevertheless, you might want to implement a different type of flipper (say with three coils each) and the flipper device might be a bad fit. Therefore, you can use the hardware abstraction interface and write rules in a hardware independent way (or overload the flipper device which does exactly that).

If you want to use a very specific feature of your hardware and we did not implement an abstraction for it you can also access the hardware directly but it will likely not work on other platforms anymore. E.g. this might be the case if you want to do advanced stuff with the AUX port on the P-Roc.

As you see, MPF offers you all kind of flexibility. You can access hardware directly or use abstractions. Plus, if you implement your own devices or extend existing devices (those can live inside your machine folder) you will be able to instantiate them using config (if you want that).

Code can be added either globally (using scriptlets or code hooks), per mode, as new/overloaded device or even as a custom platform. See the MPF developer documentation for more details about our APIs and interfaces.

Why config files?

At the most basic level, config files in MPF let you access hundreds or thousands of lines of code with a simple line or two in a config. The actual code that runs a pinball machine is really, really complex, especially when you think about all the logic around ball tracking, mode stacking, multiple things happening at once, etc.

By providing an interface like the config files, we allow you to have access and to be able to control all these complex things in a simple way.

MPF's config files are a form of something in computer science called a "domain-specific language. (DSL)"

In this context the "domain" is pinball, so the MPF config files could be thought of as a "pinball-specific language". This means that you can't use the MPF DSL to program a dart board machine or a self-driving car, but when it comes to programming pinball, they're darn good!

There are many advantages to DSLs, including:

  • Increased productivity: Get a complex mode up and running in MPF with a half-page config file instead of writing 500 lines of Python code.
  • Fewer bugs: The config files are used by lots of people, so we know they work the way they're supposed to, instead of every pinball maker writing their own stuff from scratch and re-solving the same problems over and over.
  • Easier to read: You can look at a few lines of config file and know what you're looking at and what it's trying to do versus pages of Python code that you have to reverse engineer to understand.
  • Ease of support: Same as above. If you are having a problem, it's easy to post a config to the forum and everyone can understand it, versus scanning through hundreds of lines of custom Python code.
  • Ease of planning: Since everyone in the MPF community speaks the same language of config files, it's easy to ask for help and direction on how to do things.
  • Insulation from future updates: The config files remain constant (or we provide migration tools to upgrade them, so we can make major changes to MPF under the hood without you having to re-write anything in your game.

Config files in MPF: use as much (or as little) as you want

Even though we just laid out the reasons we like "programming" your game via config files instead of "real" code, there's one important thing to know about the config files:

You don't have to use config files for everything.

There's a whole website dedicated to mixing custom code with MPF (at, and you can easily mix code (written in Python or the language of your choice) with existing MPF code and configs, so really you can use as much or as little of the config file interface as you want.

One way to think about MPF is that it's a solid set of pinball functionality with a nice API, and then the config file interface is a separate component that rides on top of that API and exposes it via easy-to-use config files.

So if you're a programmer and prefer to program against the API directly, go for it! The API is well-documented and fairly stable now, so if you don't want to use a single config file for anything, you can just use the MPF API and do whatever you want and still benefit from the thousands of hours of effort we put into MPF.

The reality, though, is that building a complete game in MPF is a balance between doing things in config files and writing code. At the end of the day, it doesn't matter whether your game is 90% configs and 10% code, or 80/20, 50/50, 20/80, etc. The exact balance depends on the personal preference of the person building the game.

In fact even we drop into "real" code to do certain things. There have been lots of times when we think, "Yeah, X action would be 20 confusing config lines or just two lines of Python, so I'm writing it in Python." That's perfectly fine.

The real power comes when you start to mix-and-match. For example, you could use the MPF config files to build out your base hardware interface and mode structures, then use your own Python code to do the logic within a mode, then use your mode code to post an event to use MPF's scoring system, etc.

If you don't use MPF, then you have to write everything yourself in code. If you do use MPF, then you get to choose what you write in code and what you don't have to write. (Seriously, ball tracking is a hard. Use our pre-written code via the config files!)

I already know Python. Why learn obscure config files?

Again, the software that runs pinball machines is complex. The complete MPF codebase is over 15,000 lines of code, with thousands of lines of code to do things that seem simple on the surface, like managing ball devices and tracking where all the balls are at all times.

MPF's config files provide a friendly interface to all that complexity. So yes, it's true that you have to spend a few hours learning about the ball_devices: section of the MPF config files in order to learn how to use them effectively. But the alternative is learning everything about how ball tracking works in a pinball machine and then writing all that from scratch yourself. That would take a lot longer than it would to learn about how to configure ball tracking in MPF. And besides, we already did that! :)

Aren't config files limiting?

Even though we've tried to envision many different scenarios and many different types of pinball machines as we built MPF, it's true that MPF does things a certain way, and the config files are a manifestation of the way MPF does things. So there could be scenarios where you want to do something differently than how MPF does it.

But this does not mean that MPF is not the right framework for you. Don't throw the baby out with the bath water! If you don't like the way something works in MPF's shot management tracking, you don't have to completely write your own shot management from scratch. Rather you can use MPF's shot sytem, subclass the methods and objects you want to change, and then tweak them to work in your specific scenario.

Even if you want to completely replace one component of MPF, there hundreds of different components, modules, and systems that go into a pinball machine that are already part of MPF. Unless you want to write all of those from scratch, using MPF lets you get a head start on many of the things that you need in your machine that you don't want to write yourself.

Coding is fun! Doesn't using config files deprive me of that?

Some people have said, "I like to code. I don't want to just build my machine quickly." Certainly we appreciate that, because we like to code too!

If you decide to write the software for your own pinball machine from scratch, you will spend hundreds of hours writing low-level pinball things, like hardware device management, ball tracking, a mode queue, player objects, a display and sound system, etc.

If you use MPF, even if you write your own game logic in Python code, then you can focus on the fun stuff while the MPF developers focus on the boring low-level pinball stuff.

Of course, if you're thinking, "But I like the low-level stuff, I want to write that," then we would love to have you on our team helping to make MPF better. :) We have a to-do list for MPF which will take years to complete, so if you like to code, we'd love to have you help!

If there's something that MPF does that you don't like and that you think you can do better, that's an even better reason to contribute back to MPF. Please, help us make MPF better!

We have success stories of this already. Brian Madden started writing MPF in 2014. Since then, MPF user Jan Kantert started using MPF, and then he started tweaking things here and there (and submitting his changes back to the MPF project.) Now Jan has completely rewritten MPF's ball device code, our hardware platform interface, he's added multiball, ball lock, and ball search, extra balls, servos, tests.... the list goes on.

Another MPF user, Quinn Capen, has rewritten MPF's RGB LED interface, written a complete pinball-focused advanced audio system, written an alternative media controller based on Unity 3D...

John Marsh said, "It would be cool if there was a GUI wizard to help people set up their machines," so now he's building that.

Hugh Spahr created his own pinball controller hardware (the Open Pinball Project), and then wrote a platform interface for MPF so MPF users can use OPP hardware too.

You get the idea.

The bottom line is that these are all MPF users who love to code, so rather than being scared away by MPF's config file interface, instead they embraced MPF, dug in, and are making MPF better. So now all the time they spend writing code isn't just limited to running on their machine which sits in their basement for 360 days a year; instead their code is running on pinball machines all over the world, which is very fulfilling and cool!

When something breaks, I don't know if it's my config or an MPF bug?

True, one of the limitations of using config files is that when things don't work the way you expect, you don't know if it's a problem with your config or a deeper bug in MPF.

However if you're someone who knows how to program, MPF is open source! You can go through the MPF code to see if it's a bug, and if so, you can fix it and submit a pull request to fix that bug for everyone.

And if it's a configuration error, you can also edit the MPF documentation to be more clear, and then submit a pull request to the docs, and now you've also helped fix this issue for everyone.

Again, don't not use MPF because it uses config files and you want to "know" what's happening under the hood. Instead learn MPF and the code behind it and share your programming and pinball passion with the world!

Using MPF means you have a team of programmers making your machine better

The MPF project was started in May 2014. Since then we have over 5,000 hours of time spent (both in code and documentation). More importantly, we're continuing to update and expand MPF, with dozens of commits to the core code and docs every week. (Probably an average of 60 hours a week of work.)

If you use MPF, you get all that work for free. :) It's like having a team of developers working 60 hours a week to make your game better. Pretty cool!

The bottom line

The creators of MPF are passionate about pinball, passionate about software development, and passionate about open source.

The beauty of MPF is that it's a bunch of people, from all over the world, writing software and documentation which helps more people create more pinball machines. As MPF grows in popularity, we love the fact that some day we will be able to walk into a bar, see a pinball machine, and know that some of the code we wrote is powering that machine. It warms our hearts.

If you decide to go your own way and not use MPF, that's great. We support you! (Feel free to rip off any ideas from MPF. We'd love it!) But don't write off MPF just because you want to do "real" programming and MPF is a "config-based" project. We could use the help of programmers like you. :)

Something missing or wrong? You can fix it!

This website is edited by people like you! Is something wrong or missing? Is something out of date, or can you explain it better?

Please help us! You can fix it yourself and be an official "open source" contributor!

It's easy! See our Beginner's guide to editing the docs.

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